Conference on Corruption, Transparency, and Accountability for Sustainable Development
The Forum in collaboration with United Nations Development Programme, UNDP New York and the Independent Policy Group, IPG, organized, in Abuja, the national capital of Nigeria, a multi-stake holder conference comprising, officials of the government, members of the private sector, representatives of the media, members of the Nigeria civil society, international organizations, students, the police and other paramilitary services and selected members of the general public.
The Forum identified the massive corruption and the abuse of public trust for private gain as the bane of government and the other sectors of the Nigerian society. Inequitable distribution and wasteful employment of resources, disempowerment of key sectors of the society; exclusion of the majority from development opportunities are some of the identified consequences of corruption that conspire to produce the wanton poverty that, like corruption itself, has become a national character. This is in spite of the nation’s massive earnings from oil. 70% of Nigeria’s estimated 120 million people live below the poverty line. Successive attempts to explain this contradiction have repeatedly implicated failure of governance, characterized by bad and purposeless leadership as the major cause of the disconnection between the country’s wealth,
and the people’s well being.
The Forum (ALF), therefore organized the two-day conference to
· Reviewed administrative capacity of the government and other actors for enforcing sanctions against corrupt practices
· Identified gaps in current policy initiatives and frameworks for combating corruption in Nigeria and
· Facilitate the creation of a broad based network for combating corruption in Nigeria
The conference focused on three major thematic concerns: current leadership response and constraints in the campaign against corruption in Nigeria; the nature and systemic pattern of corruption in the Nigerian society; and the role of religion and civil society in the fight against corruption.
After thorough deliberations and discussions, participants, amongst others concluded that
i That corruption has overtaken both the public and private space, therefore the challenge of anticorruption and the battle against corruption can only be fought at both the private and the public domains and requires high level of commitment, not only from the government but also at the various arenas of associational life, starting from the family, through the schools, and other social institutions, as well institutionalized arenas for the reproduction of popular cultures, like the media.
ii That there is an organic linkage between poverty and corruption, especially petty corruption. While poverty does not necessarily lead to corruption it seriously lowers the resistance capacity of the individual to corrupt practices. Moreover, socio-economic insecurity, especially the fear of postretirement welfare greatly encourages corruption
iii. That there is no direct connection between democracy and corruption. However, where the
government is too large and accountability structures are weak, democracy tends to broaden
the space for corrupt practices.
iv. That religion could provide the framework for cultivating the core values of honesty, integrity, hard work and moral rectitude required in the fight against corruption. However, religion itself has been abused, bastardized and exploited by religious groups and leaders for selfish gains.
v. That there is a need for Nigerians to commit to addressing their private and public ethical standards and levels. Conference agreed that corruption has become wide spread because of a collapse of our ethics and erosion of our core values. The challenge in social engineering must proceed from a review of our private ethics and our public ethical conduct.
vi. That the media have not done enough to support anti-corruption efforts in the country, and one main explanation for this is that they themselves have served as main arena for corruption and corrupt practices.
vii. That education has significant role to play in inculcating positive values, teaching the core ideals of honesty and integrity, good and decent conduct, stigmatizing corrupt behaviour especially to the youths and children and in the general advocacy against corruption. However, educational opportunities have not been properly exploited in the current battle against corruption in Nigeria.
viii. That while the CSOs and CBOs, the NGOs especially have been largely donor driven and have failed to explore the immense capacities they have for building a broad coalition and network around anti-corruption efforts. Where such actions exist, they have been isolated and
Agenda for Action
Drawing from the conclusions outlined above and after carefully examining the roles and potential capacities of all stakeholders and opportunities that exist in all sectors for driving the anti-corruption process, participants recommended the following set of actions as direct responses to identified weakness in the policy instruments, the legal framework and the social-institutional support systems of anti-corruption campaign in Nigeria.
. The government should immediately commence the process of law reforms with a view to identifying and reviewing laws that have over the years grown too lenient to corrupt practices and replace them with stiffer sanctions that will serve as adequate deterrence.
· Government should strengthen the financial and human resource base of its institutions and agencies that are involved in anti-corruption efforts. Government should devise methods and strategies to ensure that all its functionaries and officials are transparently involved and actively committed to anti-corruption efforts. Anti corruption should become a shared national value and be personified by those in critical positions of authority and influence at all levels of government.
· Oaths taken by public officers should include clauses that will commit them to specific sanctions whenever such oaths are violated. Government should set up special award and recognition for individual citizens that have demonstrated exemplary conduct in public life so as to encourage such conducts in public service.
· Social and Economic rights as enunciated in the constitution should be made justiceable so as to
compel governments to create appropriate social economic conditions that would discourage citizens’ proclivity for corruption.
· More legal practitioners with demonstrable track record of integrity and high professional and ethical standards should be encouraged to take up appointments on the benches as a way of building a critical mass of judges that are committed to anti-corruption.
· Legislature should be more actively involved in the anti-corruption process. Parliamentarians should identify and strengthen laws that are necessary for advancing the cause of anti-corruption. The discipline and ethics committee of the two Houses should also be more alive to its responsibility of checking corrupt and unethical conduct among law makers.
· As part of efforts for rewarding good conduct and punishing corrupt practices through social
stigmatization, the civil society organizations should periodically publish the name of Nigerians with exemplary conduct in the’ hall of fame’ while those with unethical conduct should equally be put in the ‘hall of shame’ roll.
· The civil society organizations should device ways of working more closely with the INEC by assisting in the screening process of candidates seeking elections into public offices and ensuring that such screening processes are opened to the general public who would make their inputs and assess the aspiring candidates before he or she could be allowed to participate in elections.
· That the civil society organizations like ALF, should device means and programmes that can empower the people in the promotion of accountability and transparency in the various tiers and
arms of government and that the civil society should build a strong coalition, across the country that will support, promote and popularize the campaign against corruption in its entirety.
The Private Sector:
· The CBN and the NDIC is commended for the steps they have taken so far to maintain good conduct within the banking sub-sector. More efforts should however be made to discourage desperate solicitation for high net-worth clients, to control how money is raised and used in the banks and ensure that the use of skimpily dressed females as marketing executives is eradicated.
· The National Economic Summit Group at their next summit should institute an Anti-corruption Charter for the Organized Private Sector (OPS) to commit them not to give bribes to any government agencies; customs, police etc. to facilitate business transactions.
· The OPS and the CSOs should initiate a process that would lead to mutually enforcing strategic
partnership between them and the anti-corruption agencies so as to create an active anti- corruption vanguard that is well rooted in the diverse sectors.
· Education should be mainstreamed as a major strategy for value-reorientation and behavior modification both at the formal and the informal level. Curriculum in schools should be reviewed with the aim ofincorporating anti-corruption messages and education in school subjects.
Democratic Leadership Training Workshop
- February, May and September
With the support of the Friedrich Naumann Foundation, the Africa Leadership Forum organized and hosted 3 sets of the Democratic Leadership Training Workshop (DLTW) for the year 2003. The training workshops, held in February, May and September respectively, had their curricula reviewed.
The Faculty of Leadership Development identified the need to include critical elements of analysis in governance and the need to facilitate a capacity development session in constitutional development and gender issues. Thus scenario-building sessions was introduced into the curricula. The objective of the scenario building was to tap into the creative power of the participants and to enable participants visualize elaborate conditions of community existence under diverse factors. The leadership sessions were also reviewed to facilitate a broad understanding of the concepts of power and authority. The session on the Information Technology was further upgraded to enable participants have a hands-on experience with
the instruments of ICT.
The core of the curricula, which is a deliberate inculcation of democratic values and principles for effective democratic leadership at the backdrop of an inadequate leadership recruitment system, however remained the same, as faculty members assessed and reviewed the relevance and the ingredients of all the sessions.
Participants in the last session of the training workshop also had the singular opportunity of meeting with the Founder and former Chairman of the Africa Leadership Forum, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo GCFR in the interactive and personal experience session of the training programme.
The DLTW is one of the forums most enduring programmes, the workshop was borne out of the need to facilitate a process of empowerment for male and female young leaders in democracy towards meeting the challenges in sustaining the fledging democratic process initiated in Nigeria. The stated objectives of the DLTW is to further improve the capacity of young leaders in Nigeria to continuously expand their liberal political space; provide opportunity for inter-political networks, inter-party networks and linkages towards positive collaboration at both lateral and vertical levels; enhance the opportunities for youth leaders to sharpen their leadership skills in participatory democracy and governance; and to inculcate in young leaders the values and concepts of effective democratic leadership.
Africa Union Technical Workshop on the Monitoring and Evaluation process of the CSSDCA Meeting - June
In early June, the Africa Leadership Forum facilitated a Technical Workshop on the Monitoring and Evaluation Process of the Conference on Security, Stability, Development and Cooperation in Africa (CSSDCA) in Abuja, organized by the Africa Union. The workshop, attended by about 35 participants, included experts from the civil society, academia, regional and sub regional organizations and six members of the Permanent Representative Committee of the Union.
The objective of the Workshop was to elaborate, amongst others, administrative arrangements overseeing the monitoring process, with diagnostic tools and measurement criteria for assessing performance as well as deficiencies and capacity restraints that impede them.
The Africa Leadership Forum is the technical partner of the African Union on the Conference on Stability, Security Development and Cooperation in Africa and thus provides the organizational and intellectual backstopping in the Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation of the CSSDCA. The CSSDCA is a policy development framework adopted by then OAU to forge common values between African states. With the evolution of the OAU to the African Union, it is an interface mechanism in the AU that integrates the various operative components of the African Union, so that the underlying vision of the CSSDCA, the interrelationship between security, stability, development and co-operation, would be realized in practice.
The CSSDCA also provides the link between the AU and Civil Society and has the responsibility of integrating Civil Society into the work processes of the AU. It is the Monitoring and Evaluation (M/E) mechanism of the AU. Its focus would be the monitoring and evaluation of the decisions taken by AU Member States, hence the technical workshop to elaborate, and clarify the administrative arrangements overseeing the monitoring processes.
At the end of the meeting participants were of the view that the CSSDCA process was critical in the AU and deserves to be supported precisely because it represents an attempt by African leaders, governments and
civil societies to take ownership of their own pronouncements and introduce an element of ownership into their activities.
Africa Women’s Forum 2003 - June
In 2003, the Africa leadership Forum with its renewed mandate to develop capacities of women, men and youth in critical areas of development, convened the 5th Annual Africa Women’s Forum with the theme “Leadership Challenges of Women in the Campaign against HIV/AIDS”
The meeting held in close collaboration with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Action- Aid Africa office, United Nations Agency for HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the governments HIV/AIDS campaign agency, the National Action Committee on HIV/AIDS (NACA). The conference drew an array of distinguished and accomplished professionals, men and women from the civil society, Government, representatives of international organisations across the various regions of Africa. The First Lady of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Chief (Mrs.) Stella Obasanjo, formally declared the conference opened.
The conference convened to elaborate on the need to expand the space of engagement of women
within policy framework that has been adopted to contain the continued spread of HIV/AIDS. It was also convened to initiate and develop strategies that will assist women from across the continent to adequately to take the leadership required in curbing the pandemic among women and girls.
The Conference among others:
1. Provided a forum for dialogue, consensus building and networking leadership roles and responsibilities of women in curbing the pandemic HIV/AIDS
2. Deepened the understanding of the participants about factors that inhibit or promote women’s
leadership in HIV/AIDS pandemic.
3. Came up with strategies required to strengthen women’s capabilities in promoting effective gender sensitive responses to HIV/AIDS.
4. Carried out a review of existing regional and national mechanisms on HIV/AIDS with regards to the gender balance and content.
5. Initiated a process of building and sustaining a strong regional network of critical women organizations and individuals on HIV/AIDS and also came out with specific follow-up activities and projects that can further promote and consolidate the role of women in the fight against HIV/AIDS.
At the end of the consultations, participants were of the view that the ultimate objective of the Leadership Challenges for African Women in the Campaign Against HIV/AIDS is to move the concerns of women and women’s’ organisations out of its current peripheral position to one that effectively influences the agenda of African States.
Teacher/Instructor ICT Immersion workshop - September
In line with the forum’s paramount objective of improving the capacity and knowledge base of the successor generation of Africans, the Africa Leadership Forum initiated and executed in September 2003, the first of a series of Teacher/Instructor ICT Immersion workshops.
Immediate objective of the training was to promote the overall cognitive application skills and use of ICTs for educational purposes by teachers and instructors as a way of improving their delivery efficiency and increase their understanding of the use of the resources both as a teacher resource and as a development resource. The training was laced with leadership training sessions.
The workshop/training held on the premise that the centrality of information technology in promoting education, the positive aspects of globalization and economic growth makes it mandatory for African nations to plug into the ICT experience. Nigeria therefore needs to take urgent steps to encourage broad based development initiatives. In particular, initiatives in education, science & technology, political and socio-cultural development. One way of catalysizing or bringing about this fast paced development is through initiatives that narrow down the digital divide between developed and developing nations.
The meeting also held with the predication that as in Nigeria and other places, 70 percent of society is molded by the inputs and teachings of the segment of the public who constitute themselves as teachers and instructors. They therefore have an abiding need to be effectively engaged with ICTs both as application users and managers and as a medium to extend its general use and application in the wares and ways of communities to those they have in their tutelage.
The reality however is that less that 5% percent of Nigerian teachers and instructors are versed in the use and application of ICT for educational purposes. Modern extension of knowledge from its repository to members of the younger generation has evolved in various parts pf the world with new methods like online classes and instructions, video conferencing and live workshops as the current way inculcation. For Nigeria and most developing nations this has emerge as a major challenge.
The objectives of the training workshop was therefore to:
· Give teachers and instruction a rudimentary and later a versatile understanding of the computer
and its uses and expose teachers and instructors to the opportunities that exist in the use and application of ICTs in preparation of teaching matters, teaching, grading and assessment of
· Find the merging point of ICT with indigent educational experience
· Stimulate the minds of the men and women, and inculcate moral and social values
· To enable teachers and instructors interact with their counterparts other parts of the world, on a firm and equal basis in ICT awareness and usage and increase their interest in the emerging “Information society”.
· Introduce teachers and instructors to the digital opportunities derived from using ICTs in terms of research and performance enhancement
· To attempt to bridge the digital divide between the developed nations and the developing nations.
Computer Rebuilding Project - September
The Africa Leadership Forum is constantly reviewing its projects and initiating new and appropriate new ones to complement those being executed. The Computer Rebuilding project is thus a complementary project with the Teachers/Instructor ICT Immersion workshop. The project is aimed at demystifying the rudiments of computers and ICTs generally, and creating a knowledgeable generation of African leaders and citizens.
ALF acknowledges that the emerging knowledge-based-societies and or knowledge economies have been derived from their cognitive application of the uses of Information and Communication technologies (ICTs). And these uses are fast expanding everyday. ICTs have opened up new horizons for the creation and exchange of knowledge, for education and exchange of knowledge, in education and training, in promoting creativity, intercultural development and dialogue.
The centrality of information technology in promoting education, globalization and economic growth makes it mandatory for African nations to plug into the ICT experience. Evidence abounds in the consistent positive growth of developed economies propelled by an assemblage of tools, which include the heavy and overbearing reliance on ICTs. Africa needs to avail itself of the immense opportunities of ICT in promoting social and economic growth. This is especially so with Nigeria as it pertains to improving her economic and political space in the international community.
There is, thus, a need for Nigeria and Africa to take urgent steps to encourage broad based development initiatives. In particular, initiatives in education, science & technology, political and socio-cultural development should be encouraged. One way of catalysizing or bringing about this fast paced development is through initiatives that narrow down the digital divide between developed and developing nations.
In facing some of these challenges, ALF found a partner with Digital Aid Inc, a non-governmental, not for profit firm based in the United Stats of America. The primary activity of the project of the project is to obtainment of used hard ware from organizations and individuals from the US for use in Africa where there is a soaring need for the systems. In the schools, students are taught how to dissemble and assemble the systems in training workshops. For successful students, they are acquire such systems for further use in their schools and for personal development projects.
The goal is the overall promotion of cognitive application skills and use of ICTs for professional and educational purposes by participants and instructors as a way of improving and enhancing the use of ICTs for knowledge acquisition and the gradual bridging of the digital divide. The objective is to
· Give participants a hands on approach to the use of computers
· Student participants and instructors in this project will be inducted in the rudimentary and later a versatile understanding of the computer and ICTs
· To expose participants and instructors to the opportunities that exist in the use and application of ICTs and to enable participants and instructors interact with their counterparts other parts of the world, on a firm and equal basis in ICT awareness and usage and increase their interest in the
emerging “Information society”.
· Introduce participants and instructors to the digital opportunities derived from using ICTs in terms of research and performance enhancement
43rd National Independence Anniversary Essay
ALF organized the 43rd National Independence Anniversary Essay competition to first meet the Forum’s long-standing mission to ensure that the emerging and future leadership of Africa is given the exposure; the knowledge and the training that will enable them withstand the rigor and challenges of the leaders in this millennium. The competition, organized under the auspices of the Hope Project is also designed to rejuvenate and restore, among others, the collapsing and or disintegration of the core values that held Nigerian society together and should wield socio-political and economic development.
The concept of the Hope Project, launched by the President and Commander –in-Chief of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo, GCFR, who also is the Founding Chair of the Africa Leadership Forum is aimed at creating greater understanding among Nigeria’s citizens, young and old, of the nations current development constraints, and increase of responsibilities in creating a better Nigeria through enlightenment campaign that mobilizes people to take positive action.
Part of the activities of the project is the creation of a Vanguard of Hope. The Vanguard of Hope is a voluntary association of boys and girls, men and women of character and integrity at all levels of society, who share the message and vision of hope for Nigeria.
The 43rd National Independence Anniversary Essay Competition was therefore organized to.
1. Facilitate a breeding process of ideas in the minds of the chosen category of persons,
2. Provide an avenue for the recognition of persons with genuine sanguine ideas about Nigeria
3. Stimulate a debate on, about and around the issues and
4. Indeed to facilitate the expansion of the network of persons of character and integrity at all levels of society, who share the message and vision of hope for Nigeria.
The essay competition is ongoing and will be rounded up in the second quarter of the year 2004.
Annual Parliamentarians Summit - November
ALF’s annual regional summit of African Parliamentarians was held in Kampala Uganda in November. The summit, which enjoyed the collaborative support of the Regional Bureau of Africa of the United Nations Development Programme, UNDP, and the United Nations Officer of High Commissioner on Refugees and the Parliamentary Support center in Canada, convened in November with the theme “Regional Conference on the Africa Peer Review Mechanism”. As usual the conference had in attendance a cross section of Parliamentarians from twelve African countries that have acceded to the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM).
The Conference held as part of the process of deepening and widening the support base of the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM). The Africa Leadership Forum (ALF) had in the past three years organized high-level meetings for African women and Parliamentarians on NEPAD as part of its determination to broaden the support base and popularise NEPAD as a continental initiative among the various segments of the African society.
The immediate objectives of the conference were to:
· Provide a platform to broaden the awareness and knowledge of parliamentarians on the evolution, aims and objectives of the APRM and NEPAD;
· Imbue the parliamentarians and other participants from civil society with a clear understanding of APRM, its country level processes and technical assessments and to encourage them develop a wide range of conclusions and recommendations that could enhance the implementation of the
· Facilitate and strengthen the capacity of African parliamentarians in developing adequate
response mechanism for the implementation of the APRM within their countries;
· Identify the legislative and administrative requirements of the APRM at the national and sub-regional levels;
· Create a broad based network of African parliamentarians that will work together in advancing
APRM at the country and regional levels.
ALFs averred commitment to towards facilitating a broad understanding and grasp by African
Parliamentarians of the implications of recent strategic development initiatives in Africa informed the meeting. Realizing that African parliamentarians remain relevant as the most galvanising force for sustainable development in Africa and thus ought to be consulted on issues relating to the future of the continent.
ALF responded to this need as part of the leadership challenges confronting Africa. The first of a three-day Regional Conference for African Parliamentarians on Recent Strategic Development Initiatives in Africa held at Accra, Ghana in April 2002. That meeting had in attendance a cross section of Parliamentarians from 25 African countries. They were joined by other distinguished and accomplished men and women from business, the organised civil society, the professions, international organisations, from countries across the African continent as well as Europe and North America.
The Kampala intervention was thus another attempt to create better awareness and increased capacity among parliamentarians of African countries who have agreed to participate in the peer review process of the African Peer Review Mechanism and thereby broaden the support base for the successful implementation of the review mechanism.
What is the APRM?
The African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) is an integral part of NEPAD designed as a constructive peer review dialogue and self-assessment instrument that ensure that the policies and practices of participating states conform to the agreed principles and standards of the NEPAD Declaration on Democracy, Political, Economic and Corporate Governance.
The primary purpose of the APRM is to “foster adoption of policies, standards and practices that lead to political stability, high economic growth, sustainable development and accelerated sub-regional and continental economic integration through sharing of experiences and reinforcement of successful and best practice, including identifying deficiencies and accessing the need for capacity building”.
It is an important feature in the implementation of the New Partnership for Africa’s evelopment, NEPAD with a great potential for reconstructing the African political and socio-economic topography, as African leaders will have to subject themselves to periodic reviews to be carried out by the APRM team at AU secretariat.
While it is clear that the APRM has quite significant implications for various African countries, the main challenge remains that of participation and the popularisation of the mechanism. Given the voluntary nature of the instrument and level of commitments required, Parliamentarians from the 16 African States who have already subscribed to the review process will have to be sufficiently prepared and positioned to serve as a model for others to emulate. The parliament as an organised institution must be engaged and seized with it.
Tri-Regional Conference on the Economic, Social and Cultural Council
The adoption of the Economic Social And Cultural Council (ECOSOCC) as one of the advisory organs of the African Union is a landmark achievement for civil society movements in Africa. It has paved way in an unprecedented manner for civil society organizations (CSOs) to participate actively in the issue of African governance. This is more so because African governments have realized the critical need to involve civil society in tackling the challenges of restructuring the continents numerous woes. The records and performance of African governments thoroughly attest against leaving the destiny of the people of Africa to their governments alone.
With the establishment of the CSSDCA Unit in the African Union (AU) Secretariat as responsible for mainstreaming and consolidating partnership with African CSOs and the AU as contained in the Constitutive Act;
Late into the year, ALF played host to, again in collaboration with the Africa Union, to Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) from West, Central and North Africa at ALF International Conference Center. The Triregional consultative meeting, aptly dubbed, the Ota Tri-Regional conference, was to be the last of the series of consultative forums on the draft statutes of the Economic Social and Cultural Council (ECOSOCC) to help produce the much-needed protocol for ECOSOCC. The main objectives of that meeting were to
· Review the draft statute of ECOSOCC and examine other models such as the UN-ECOSOCC and the EU Social and Economic Committee for effective recommendations.
· Familiarize participants with ECOSOCC and facilitate intensive discussion on its nature, importance and operationalization
· Review the structure and composition of ECOSOCC
· Review and deliberate on governance issues of ECOSOCC
· Facilitate development of a code of ethics for CSOs affiliated to ECOSOCC
· Review selection criteria and other membership issues of ECOSOCC
The Economic, Social and Cultural Council is the advisory organ of the African Union consisting of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), representing the African people, that are involved in a wide range of activities at all levels relevant to the objectives and goals of the Africa Union.
The council when it finally takes off will consist of, but not limited to social groups such as those representing women, children, the youth, the elderly and the disabled, professional groups such as associations of artists, engineers, medical doctors, journalists, teachers, lawyers, economists, business organizations (Chambers of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Community Based Organizations (CBOs) and Voluntary Organizations, workers and Employers Organizations, and organizations of traditional leaders, the academia, and religious and cultural associations. Prior to the operationalization of the Conference for Security, Stability, Development and Cooperation in Africa (CSSDCA) into the working programme of the OAU/AU in DEC. of 2001, the role of CSOs was virtually
none existence in the OAU/AU scheme of things.
Partnership with the Private Sector, Business School of Netherlands
In line with ALFs commitment to the development of appropriate personnel and leadership for the continent of Africa and as part of ALFs commitment to promoting partnerships amongst and between the private sector and the civil society, ALF has synergized in the past to execute projects of mutual interest.
ALFs partnership with the Business School of Netherlands is one of such ventures.
The Africa Leadership Forum’s synergy with BSN international to provide leadership and business education in Nigeria further emphasis the forum’s commitment to support and encourage the diagnosis and informed search for appropriate and effective solutio ns to local issues in Africa through a variety of means and partnership. It is clear that management and leadership issues are unique to place and time. Though there are skills that are universal, it still remains that day to day running of organizations are evolving and learning must also evolve. African managers and administrators must be mentally ahead and on top of issues confronting their organizations.