The Conference on CSSDCA
· Addis Ababa, January 2000: From January 8th to 10th, a preparatory meeting of the Group of Experts was held at the OAU Secretariat in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The meeting was called primarily to brainstorm on the agenda, structures and modalities of the operations of the Group’s substantive meeting scheduled for February 2000. Representatives of the Africa Leadership Forum, the Economic Commission for Africa and the Organisation of African Unity attended the meeting. It was also decided at this meeting that there is an urgent need to explore the modalities for providing opportunities for the Civil Society Organisation in implementing the CSSDCA process as a follow up activity of the Group of Experts.
· Addis Ababa, February 2000: The Group of Experts Meeting held also at the OAU Secretariat comprised of the members of the Steering Committee, some other OAU members, representatives of ALF and ECA. Principally, examined the Kampala Document more closely and eventually agreed to revise further and rewrite some aspects of the Kampala Document.
· Pretoria, February 2000: The Steering Committee Meeting held in Pretoria, South Africa, reviewed the report of the Group of Experts and called for a revision of the document.
· Lome, April 2000: Following the decision of the Group of Experts Meeting in Addis Ababa in January of 2000, the Africa Leadership Forum convened a meeting of Civil Society Organisations from 20 African countries in Lome, Togo between 19-19th April. The meeting discussed the proposals on CSSDCA with a view to increasing the role of the civil society in the process towards and beyond the Ministerial Conference in Abuja in May. Consequently, the meeting recommended among other things that the civil society should be brought into playing a central role in further developing the CSSDCA Document and the organisation of the conference. It also suggested that in addition to other issues contained in the Document, there should also be a Calabash focussed mainly on gender. The meeting also suggested that a systematic campaign be launched and undertaken by all African civil society organisations and other concerned parties in raising awareness on the process; that the Ministerial Meeting takes into consideration the views of the civil society in the formulation of the Final Document, which is to be submitted to the Heads of State Summit in Lome in July; and that a small, well funded secretariat be set up to implement the CSSDCA. Participants also called on the United Nations to support the future implementation of the CSSDCA process.
· Abuja, May 2000: Between 8th and 9th of May, OAU Council of Ministers met in Abuja on the CSSDCA. The main purpose of the meeting was to prepare a final document for the 36th Heads of State and Government Summit in Lome, Togo. At the end of the meeting, the Ministers agreed on the following implementation mechanism for the CSSDCA:
- That a Standing Conference be established that should meet every two years during the OAU Summit, and provisions should be made for African Parliamentarians to make their contributions to the Conference through the Pan-African Parliament, while representatives of the civil society may forward their views and recommendations to the standing Conference through the OAU General Secretariat.
- That a Ministerial Meeting be convened every two years to prepare for the summit and senior officials of the OAU member states to monitor the implementation of the CSSDCA decisions, in-between sessions of the Standing Conference. To this end, it was requested that the OAU Secretary General to work out the modalities for realising this objective.
- That the CSSDCA be incorporated into the principles and guidelines in national institutions that would have responsibility for helping in the monitoring the implementations of the CSSCA activities.
- That the Secretary-General be entrusted with the task of initiating internal administrative arrangements for designating, within the OAU Secretariat, a Unit to co-ordinate the CSSDCA activities.
- That detailed discussions be undertaken on the various calabashes inorder to operationalise the CSSDCA process. In this regard, the Secretary General is requested to undertake consultations to determine modalities for convening the meetings on the calabashes.
- That the progress report of the Secretary General deriving from these meetings and discussions after considering the outcome of consultations to be undertaken by the Secretary-General, during the Ministerial Summit in Sirte, Libya in 2001 and also submit the conclusions of the discussions of the various calabashes to the summit of the year 2002.
Improving Service Delivery in Local Governance
26th - 28th of May 2000
The political structure of Nigeria as a three-tier federation, ordinarily, should provide a framework for synthesising governmental impact to the population at various levels by providing for specialisation by each tier depending on its potential, capability and character. Majority of Nigerians reside in the rural areas. And, the tier of government closest to these people is the local government. Therefore, it is at this level that the impact of the government is often most felt, and in most cases, mostly expected to be felt.
However, the protracted malaise of military rule, with its natural centrifugal structure has rendered the local government completely comatose in Nigeria. Therefore, as the country returns to multi-party democracy with the attendant re-engineering of all political structures, it is of paramount importance to revitalise the primary tier of government, the local government, and improve its capacity to deliver the democracy dividend to a largely poor and impoverished people. This, no doubt, calls for a conscious preparation of its officials for the enormous challenge through a system of training that will enable them to correctly interpret their task in terms of delivery of relevant services to the people, and the most efficient way of doing this even in the face of dwindling resources.
The Africa Leadership Forum under its Democratic Sustenance Project organised, with the support of the Friedrich Naumann Foundation, a three-day training workshop for local government officials across the country between 26th-28th of May 2000. 40 participants attended the workshop from the six geo-political zones of the country, including local government chairmen, councillors, supervisors and accounts officers. The participants went through brainstorming and training sessions akin to those of the Democratic Leadership Training Workshop, but with the appropriate modifications that situate the programme within the direct needs of the participants. Highly qualified resource persons in local government systems and administration introduced the participants to the history and practice of local government administration in Nigeria, including the relevant laws and legal statutes that guide the operations of the local government and its relationship with the other two tiers of government. Retired local government administrators were also invited to give practical perspectives to the issues and problems, including the roles of traditional rulers who, more often than not, decide the success or failure of the council officials including techniques for managing the expectations of these traditional rulers. Participants were also trained on Adaptive Leadership Skills, Lobby and Advocacy, and Strategic Negotiations. The contents of these skills training are the same as in the DLTW.
The evaluation of the workshop, done by the participants through the questionnaires administered indicates that the programme was as a response to a dire need among this level of government officers, many of who had gone into the office totally at a loss as to how to embark on their task. This was confirmed by a Need Assessment Questionnaire administered at the workshop, asking the participants to state what particular area of their work or what particular difficult challenge they would like the ALF to assist them in resolving, as follow up activities. The results show that all of them have some difficult problems requiring some technical and professional assistance particularly in the areas of conflict resolution and advocacy. Many of the participants also proposed that the programme be replicated in their various constituencies to make the effect more enduring and comprehensive. Many have even indicated their willingness to sponsor a part of the cost for running such programmes.
Nigeria at 40
While the present generation of African leaders have to face the challenges of defining and structuring Africa’s path into the next millenium, the actual task of taking Africa to the promised land rests squarely on the fledgling shoulders of the next generation of Africans. There is the compelling need, therefore, to prepare Africa’s successor generation for the challenges of the 21st century.
The major challenge facing the next generation of Africans is how to fashion the political will that would integrate them into the rapidly changing world with all its advancement and possibilities. Africa might have suffered from history, but the experience and burden of history must be converted into positive use in the preparation for the future.
The Africa Leadership Forum recognised the need to ensure that the emerging and future leadership of Africa is given the exposure, the knowledge and the training that will enable them withstand the rigour and challenges of leadership in the new millenium. This will also place them in good stead with their counterparts in other parts of the world who are obviously more equipped with the mental and socio-psychological infrastructure required for effective leadership.
Concern for the above informed the decision of the Africa Leadership Forum to focus its 10th annual meeting of African leaders on the theme: Africa and the Successor Generation. Some of the major conclusions of the meeting were the need to among other things:
a) Identify, cultivate and promote newer forms and levels of leadership in Africa.
b) Create a systematic leadership recruitment process to deliberately prepare young Africans for leadership challenges ahead
As Nigeria turned 40 in October 2000, the Africa Leadership Forum, as part of the response mechanism, took advantage of the independence anniversary to commence, as a pilot project a National essay competition on the theme, My Vision for Nigeria by the Year 2040, among Nigerian youths within the 18-30 year age bracket.
The competition was part of a multi-faceted programme, aimed at stimulating and inculcating leadership qualities and potentials in the youths. It also aimed at affecting their thought process on leadership, as well as broadening the recruitment process of young people into leadership positions. It was expected that the competition, apart from providing the avenue for leadership recruitment, would also provide the participants the opportunity for exposure to other major leadership development programmes.
The specific objectives of the competition include, identification of such potential leaders, provision of a forum for expression of their ideas about Nigeria and their visions of the country in the next 40 years; generation of a body of original, well thought-out, practical and realisable goals for Nigeria and opening the way for numerous youth initiatives aimed at actualising those goals.
The selected winners participated in a workshop for young leaders on the eve of the anniversary celebrations. We also intend to facilitate the participation of winners in other leadership programmes within and outside Nigeria.
Radio Programme: Women Issues
Following the presentation of the Index on the Status of Women in Africa at the 2nd African Women’s Forum, held in Abidjan, Co d’lvoire in 1999, participants had noted and agreed that the set of indicators and benchmarks used by the consultants could be broadened. They went further to identify other possible modalities and strategies that could be used to effectively collate data for the revised Index, which would be used as a strong negotiating platform for Women and civil society organisations in Africa.
Thus, ALF was faced with the challenge of creating and sustaining, on a regular basis, a veritable medium of mass communication that could be employed to mobilise support and properly interrogate and articulate issues relating to gender inequalities and the status of the African woman. Consequently, the programme, Women and Issues was created as a radio programme that would do all these as well as disseminate widely all the issues relating to the problem.
The programme covered the following issue areas:
1. History of ALF, AWF, Treaties, and CEDAW
2. Index on the Status of Women in Africa
3. Women’s Rights to Political Participation
4. Mathai Wangari ‘Lion of Kenya”, environmentalist, - A personality profile
5. Female Genital Mutilation in Senegal
6. Women’s Rights, Democracy and Power in Nigeria
7. Violence Against Women
8. Nana Konadu Agyeman Rawlings, Ghana’s 1st lady- A personality profile
9. Economic Empowerment: access to loans, land ownership
10. Women and Education
11. Women of the Mano River (Liberia, S/Leone, Guinea)
12. Woman in Conflict Resolution
13. “Iydia Makubu, founding president, 3rd World Organization for Women in Science – Swaziland – A Personality profile
· The programme has allowed women from different African Countries and cultural background to share experiences.
· Help identify the challenges of the women in the 21st century and how to combat them.
· It has served as a veritable instrument for advocacy on several issues.
· The Personality Profiles have helped to present role models, thereby encouraging aspiring female leaders and helping them to understand some personal complications and dilemmas in the private and professional roles of women.
WTO 2000: Needs Assessment Seminar
The participation of the sub-Sahara African (SSA) countries in the rules-based multilateral trade negotiations in the past has been fraught with deficiency, utter neglect and lack of interest. One of the major weaknesses of the Uruguay Round of Trade Negotiations was that the interests of the developing countries in general, and SSA countries in particular, were neither sufficiently articulated, negotiated nor protected. This occurred largely as a result of the limited technical capacity for effective participation in the trade negotiation process.
The World Trade Organisation (WTO) is one major international institution to which many African countries have given the least attention. It is true that the African membership of the WTO is impressive. Currently, virtually all African countries are members, while 24 of the 29 least developed countries’ (LDCs) are from the region. In spite of this, African countries have not been very active members of the organisation. Many do not have delegations at the WTO headquarters in Geneva to enable them to participate fully and actively in the negotiation process and other regular business of the WTO. Even for the few African countries that maintain delegation at the WTO, these often have to cover other international institutions as well, and hence, are unable to give their WTO work adequate attention.
The WTO framework is becoming increasingly important for Africa’s future development. Therefore, African countries must have to learn to participate effectively in the entire spectrum of the WTO negotiating process. Currently, most of these countries have very limited capacity for understanding, absorbing and implementing WTO decisions. They are also mostly unable to articulate and defend their trade interests and take advantage of the rights that the WTO framework provides for them. To participate effectively, each African country should be in a position to take stock of the workings of the existing agreements and assess their implications from its own national perspective as a prelude to adopting appropriate options in follow-up negotiations.
The human and institutional capacity for carrying out this kind of review and assessment would also be required for articulating the region’s fundamental needs. Basically, these needs would include strengthened supply capabilities for taking full advantage of market access opportunities, improved market access for the region’s full range of exports, and adequate and appropriate assistance to deal effectively with transitional difficulties and constraints.
Nigeria and other African countries must be technically prepared for the new round of trade negotiations so that they would be able to identify, present and negotiate their positions and interests. This is the main issue discussed at a seminar that Africa Leadership Forum (ALF) organised.
The WT0-2000 Needs Assessment Seminar was to brainstorm on the position of Nigeria in the future round. Some critical questions that underpin the issues for discussions were as follows: Was the country’s participation in the last round satisfactory? What was the experience with the implementation of the Uruguay Round Agreement? Where does the country’s comparative advantage lies? What types of policies (trade and others) are necessary to pursue the country’s economic objectives in the Round? What are the conditions necessary for ensuring effective negotiation and implementation? Is negotiation better done at the regional level?
More specifically, the seminar aimed to achieve the following objectives:
(1) to sensitize the policy makers and the relevant stakeholders on the importance of multilateral trade negotiation process to Nigeria’s economic growth and development;
(2) to analyse, review and assess Nigeria’s participation in the previous multilateral trade negotiations;
(3) to articulate the opportunities and challenges for Nigeria in the new round of trade negotiations;
(4) to carry out needs assessment survey in terms of finding out the relevant line government ministries and agencies would require in terms of enhancing their capacity for trade negotiations; and
(5) to design an action plan in form of follow-up mechanism for the actualization of capacity building programme.
The one-day programme, convened by the Africa Leadership Forum, in collaboration with the African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), was held on the 21st of July 2000 in Abuja, Nigeria. It was attended by key government officials, members of the private sectors, intellectuals, journalists and other key stakeholders. The Director of the Africa Leadership Forum, Mr. Ayodele Aderinwale made the introductory remarks while the representative of the African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) Dr. Olawale Ogunkola, who also chaired the meeting, gave an opening statement.
Five papers were presented by well-versed and highly experienced resource persons on different issues relating to the subject. The central focus of all the papers, however, was on how the opportunities offered by the WTO process can be utilized in influencing the broad contours of Nigeria’s (and other African countries) integration into the global economy, and set the boundaries of the regions’ trade and investment relations with the rest of the world. In this process, it would not only influence Africa’s overall development strategies but also set the broad parameters of its trade policy.
It was clear from this workshop that Africans and Nigeria have performed dismally in relation with the WTO process. It was noted that the developed countries might not altogether be completely sincere in their agreements. For example, everything else seems to have been liberalised except the labour market, which Nigeria has a high percentage. Some countries however, like Sudan, Cape Verde etc, have however succeeded in making labour an exportable commodity. Nigeria has not been able to take advantage of this aspect always looking on to the political, and hardly on the economic angle.
In the negotiations proper, it was also noted that while some countries would diligently study, digest and understand the terms and implications of the treaty before signing the agreements, Nigeria Leaders were always quick to sign agreements thus committing the nation irrevocably on issues that are not favourable to the nation.
At the end of the day, the following were recommended:
· A change of attitude should occur in Nigerians with regards to preparing for serious issues pertaining to the country.
· There should be a thorough knowledge of the negotiation process by Nigerians involved in the negotiations.
· Technical crews, well versed on the negotiation process, who will help translate and decipher the agreements before commitments are made, are needed, not the regular bunch of incompetent people who end up going for these negotiations without understanding a thing about the issues at stake.
· Basic issues concerning the WTO process should be learnt and taught. There is an obvious lack of in-depth analysis due to poor technical negotiation and analytical capacity. The technical crews are those who would certainly have a full grasp of the situation, to understand the complexities in the negotiations. India was cited as a good challenge. She comes up for her national interest with in-depth analysis backed up with facts and figures. While South Africa is also making progress, Nigeria could not, at some points, defend it cause, thus making a mess of whatever argument or proposals she may have brought forward. Also, most African countries were found to rely on their missions to Geneva while the person being sent would have neither the experience nor technical know how needed for such a venture.
· Experts need therefore to be trained if any progress is to be made.
· The communication breakdown and lack of coordination between representatives in Geneva and those at home need to be repaired.
· Since it was observed that traditionally external trade in Africa has not been given priority thus making the resources inadequate, an awareness should be created to make the people know of the WTO process and its implications to fully grasp the external trade issue, globalization etc. A participant remarked that to the layman the WTO phenomenon is for the elite and that the ordinary man cannot identify with it, thus the need for the awareness to be created.
· Opportunities and policies need to be made known to people.
· There should be collaboration between the public sector and the private sector perhaps by having annual workshops on issues of trade as well.
· Generally between “trade” and “aid”, Nigerians and by extension, Africa desire to be self-reliant.
· There is need for more technical assistant for capacity building. It is regrettable that after the Seattle meeting nothing seems to be happening from the national focal point.
· There is need for resources to be made available for progress.
· As a result of the weak institutions for planning and implementing trade policies at home, mechanisms such as in the US should be adopted, experienced people will produce facts and figures of the realities in the country.
· For the next round of trade negotiations, Nigerians should be adequately prepared in all ramifications long before time.
Democratic Leadership Training Workshop
for young Leaders in Nigeria (DLTW)
Like most African countries, leadership crisis continues to pose a major challenge to Nigeria. The lack of a critical and able leadership with the necessary discipline and commitment to genuine national pluralism, popular participation, responsiveness, official accountability and transparency has been at the bottom of the country’s crisis of governance for a larger part of its history. The complexities of this problem have largely indicated that the challenge of leadership in question must necessarily transcend the strictly political variation by empowering other sections of civil society such as Community Based Organisations (CBOs), business, professional associations, women, youth and students, farmers co-operatives, non-governmental organisations and other critical sectors with a view to facilitating the release of their creative and productive energies.
As Nigeria transits to a democracy, and gradually picks up the pieces from the years ravaged by the locust of military rule and misgovernance, it has become critically imperative that the successor generation of Nigerians become increasingly participative in the preparations for the next millennium. Traditionally, the recruitment process for leadership has been defined by factors other than those critical to the responsibilities and challenges of leadership, and without any carefully thought out programme of deliberate preparation for aspiring leaders. Therefore, as part of a gradual process of consolidating the country’s young democracy, the need for a systematic, and progressive grooming of the successor generation is obvious. The deterioration of public spiritedness, the ever-increasing problems of ethics, the imperatives of globalisation, and the need to deepen the knowledge of democratic principles underline the urgency with which concerted efforts must be taken in this direction.
As a civil society organisation concerned with the problems and challenges of leadership and good governance, the Africa Leadership Forum has long realised the need for this deliberate and systematic cultivation of leadership capabilities among young Africans. Accordingly, ALF has organised leadership training workshops, the Democratic Leadership Training Workshop (DLTW) across the continent of Africa. The first of such workshops was held in Dakar, Senegal in May 1998 and another in Accra, Ghana in November of the same year. The Southern African edition of the workshop was held in Windhoek, Namibia in 1999, while the East and Central African edition will hold in Nairobi, Kenya in August. The return of Nigeria to democracy in 1999, and the consequent liberalisation of the political climate provided ALF the opportunity to organise the workshop in Nigeria as a specific challenge of democratic nurturing and sustenance.
Starting from March 2000, the Africa Leadership Forum, with the financial assistance of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Office of Transition Initiatives (OTI) commenced a series of six workshops across the country’s six geo-political zones. The first was the South South edition held in Calabar, followed by the South East edition in Enugu, then Sokoto (North West), Jos (North Central), Yola (North East ) and finally, in Ota for the South West.
The specific objectives of the workshop are to improve the capacity of young leaders in Nigeria to continuously expand their liberal political space; provide opportunity for inter-political networks, inter-party networks and linkages towards positive collaboration at both lateral and vertical levels; enhance the opportunities for youth leaders to sharpen their leadership skills in participatory democracy and governance; and to inculcate in young leaders the values and concepts of effective democratic leadership.
The participants are drawn from among young adults between the ages of 18 and 40, who are professionals, members of CBOs, NGOs, CSOs and the Students Unions who possess demonstrable leadership qualities and who are in critical positions of influence. It is expected that knowledge gained by these primary beneficiaries will achieve ripple effects through their activities in their various constituencies. The workshops focus on general theoretical issues of politics and governance as a broad instructional base for other aspects that provide skills and training that will equip participants for able and effective participation in democratic processes. These include:
· Nigeria In the World Today, Our Vision of State, Understanding Political Liberalisation, Understanding Leadership, Leadership and the Issue of ethics, Adaptive leadership skills, Coalition Building, Strategic Negotiation, Effective Communication, Lobby and Advocacy, Personal Empowerment, Managing Expectations, Simulation Exercises, Case Studies, Individual Action Plan, Workshop Evaluation.
With the support of the CORDAID, the ALF organised three of the six of workshops planned for 2001-2002 in 2001. The first was between 17th and 21st September, the second between 15th and 19th October, whilst the last held between 5th and 9th November, all at Ota.
Objectives of the workshop
The specific objectives of the workshop are to further improve the capacity of young leaders in Nigeria to continuously expand their liberal political space; provide opportunity for inter-political networks, inter-party networks and linkages towards positive collaboration at both lateral and vertical levels; enhance the opportunities for youth leaders to sharpen their leadership skills in participatory democracy and governance; and to inculcate in young leaders the values and concepts of effective democratic leadership. The nine training workshops organised in 2000 and 2001 were geared towards facilitating a process of empowerment for young male and female young leaders in democracy and human rights; and at meeting the challenges of sustaining the fledging democratic processes initiated in Nigeria, thereby improving the capacity of young leaders in Africa to continuously expand their liberal political space. Our intention in this workshop was to enhance opportunities for young leaders to sharpen their leadership skills in participatory democracy and governance. It further sought to inculcate in young leaders the values and concepts of effective democratic leadership and by so doing create an informal opportunity for young leaders to interact and share ideas with select members of former and serving political office holders as well as eminent statesmen who uphold the virtues of participatory democracy, and select members of the larger political community in Nigeria.
Part of the activities of the workshop is a session called Personal Experience. It is usually an informal dinner speech in which a young achiever is invited to share his leadership experiences with participants at the DLTW. A major objective of this session is to fully exploit their leadership potentials through the inspiration that participants would derive from the personal experiences of such role model. In the year 2001, DLTW participants interacted with Messrs Fola Adeola, a Chartered accountant and Managing Director of the Guaranty Trust Bank, Nosa Igiebor, a frontline journalist and Editor in Chief of TELL magazine and Clement Nwakwo, a top human rights activist and constitutional lawyer.
Beyond this, the curriculum of the previous workshops has also been expanded and improved upon. Built into the one-week workshop are key topics like:
· IT as a tool of Leadership;
· The Power of Inquiry;
· Introduction to Community Service.
ALF responded to these challenges when it organized six training workshops with the support of the Office of Transition Initiatives, covering the six geo-political zones of the country for young leaders thereby creating a forum for young leaders in Nigeria to facilitate the exchange of information among themselves and through an across-the-board vertical and horizontal integration with resource persons.
The wealth of knowledge so gathered, coupled with the motivating interaction with eminent statesmen and resource persons with integrity has adequately prepared the beneficiaries for the present and bigger democratic challenges of out time. And, apart from the testimonies given by participants to the quality and relevance of the project in the assessment forms, individual participants have felt sufficiently obliged to write letters and also make phone calls expressing their gratitude for the opportunity they have had to participate in the programme. One such letter was sent in by Sulaimon Olanrewaju a journalist with the Nigerian Tribune in which he says: A friend of mine, Tunde Anifowose participated in your recent training programme held in Enugu and became a positively changed person. The difference in Tunde, before he went to Enugu and now, is too much. I desire such a positive change in my life too. Therefore, I would like to know how to participate in your subseqent training programmes”.
At the end of the nine workshops in 2000 and 2001, an average of 35 participants per workshop were trained. Although the original provision was for 25 participants per workshop, ALF was compelled to increase participation to 35. This is because of the high level of interest that the programme has generated across the country. And at the end of the workshops, not less than 315 participants have been trained, with the excess cost borne by ALF. Although this number exceeds the original projection, it is still insignificant when compared with the number of applications received from prospective participants to the workshop. At the end of the project, people who have seen the newspaper advertisement of the programme or who got to know of it through participants at the previous episodes have sent from about 3000 applications all over the country. Many are still applying.
The workshop is structured in such a way that at a particular chapter, every geo-political zone of the country is represented. This is another significant achievement of the programme in that it has brought young Nigerians from diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds together to closely interact for a period of a week and therefore shed some of their age-long prejudices by understanding one another better.
A concrete achievement of this workshop is that even as it continues, coalitions have continued to form in each workshop among representatives of CBOs and NGOs present around such issues as poverty alleviation, waste disposal and corruption. The Africa Leadership Forum is committed to supporting and helping to nurture such initiatives.
What all this indicate is that the DLTW has emerged at the appropriate time as a critical response to a need to fill an intellectual and training vacuum among young Nigerians in a position of leadership who aspire to such position.